Research on Outcomes of Physical Punishment. Elizabeth Gershoff 2002, Meta-analysis of 88 physical punishment studies.  Durrant


When mild physical punishment (spanking, slapping, pinching, not kicking, punching, severe hitting) was used in the family to correct children, children were more likely to have:


·      Higher levels of aggression.

·      A higher risk of child delinquency behaviours such as stealing, drug use, sexual activity.

·      Lower moral internalization (learns to not get caught, rather then do the right thing even when no one is looking)






·      Higher levels of impaired parent-child relationship communication. (even at 2 years of age, child learns to avoid parent rather then seek out for comfort)

·      Poorer child mental health.

·      Higher levels of adult aggression and anti social behaviour.

·      Poorer adult mental health.

·      Increased risk of adult spouse and child abuse.

·      Increased risk of being a childhood victim of physical abuse.



Is physical punishment abuse or mild spanking?


We do know that the vast majority of physical abuse cases involves physical punishment within the context of discipline. 



When parents are emotionally aroused (angry, frustrated) they underestimated the force of their hit.   When mild spanking occurs, severe violence is 7 times as likely to occur.


This doesn’t mean that if children are spanked, they will have these negative factors.  It means that their risk for developing them will increase.  Just as carseats lower the risk of injury or death for children, choosing not to use physical punishment reduces the risk of the negative outcomes for children.
























Problem Solving







Is an action that is painful or humiliating that a more powerful person does to a less powerful one in hope of producing a change of behaviour.
















Must have a true purpose that children can understand-to make amends, restitution, or solve a problem. 

















In order to make children do better, we must make them feel bad.







Children who feel better, do better.

A positive approach is always preferable to a negative approach.







Creates attachment and belonging in the family.


Is mutually respectful to adult and child.


Teaches social, character, and life skills.


Shows children how to solve real life problems.